Bifrost Kindred

Information

Bifrost Kindred

Bifrost Kindred first began back in 1985 in North Highlands, California. We hold the family as a sacred treasure and members of this kindred are our family. We focus on health, healing of the body, keeping it fit.

Website: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/BifrostKindred
Location: Valhalla, Asgard
Members: 21
Latest Activity: Jun 27, 2017

Discussion Forum

Völuspá-The Song of the Sybil

Started by Mind Fire Jan 20, 2009. 0 Replies

The Sayings of Har

Started by Mind Fire Jan 20, 2009. 0 Replies

Comment Wall

Comment

You need to be a member of Bifrost Kindred to add comments!

Comment by Vordis on March 26, 2009 at 8:46pm
Hail all. I identify as a Norse Witch and am actively learning the lore and runes. I co-wrote a Disting blot last month; we had a great turn out and received great feed-back. So glad I found a group like this!
Comment by Enchantress on February 16, 2009 at 11:24am
Thank you Mind for the great history .I have read some of the sagas but never learned that point of view on why the Vikings raided the xtian churches.
Comment by Mind Fire on February 15, 2009 at 7:22pm
The religion of the Vikings was one of the last pagan religions left in Europe. They were often portrayed as Heathen savages that had "no respect for the sanctity of religious houses and the pacifism of their inmates." We must take into consideration the position of the Christian religion within Viking society, as well as the reasons for conversion. It might also be taken into consideration that the churches were also repositories of valuables that were left relatively unguarded.

In the case of the Danes, animosity against the Christian church is suggested by this late 19th century quote by J. C. Robertson:

'Many of the raiders were men who had suffered from the forcible means employed by Charlemagne for the conversion of pagans, or were the offspring of such men. Their enmity against Christianity was therefore fierce and unsparing; there was religious hatred, as well as the lust of spoil, in the rage which selected churches and monasteries as especial objects.'
Many Vikings died for their religious beliefs. In 998 AD, King Olaf Tryggvason made Norway a Christian country. During this time, many of the followers of the Viking religion were tortured and killed because they refused to convert to Christianity; among these was the seer, Thorleif the Wise, who was ordered to be blinded. He was taken by Olaf's men and it is said that he withstood the torture so bravely that his torturers fled after having torn out only one of his eyes. Other men stand out for their dedication to their religious under such heinous torture: Eyvind Kelde who was drowned alongside with his comrades, Iron Skegge who was killed while defending the temples at Maeri, Eyvind Kinnrifi who was tortured to death with hot coals, and Raud the Strong who was tortured with a poisonous snake and a hot iron. Even today, Ragnar Lodbrok is celebrated as a martyr by a contemporary group called the Asatru; he died at the hands of the Christians while in Northumbria. (Jones and Pennick, 1995: 135)

In some cases, Christianity was very strongly opposed in the Viking homeland. One example can be made of King Hakon the Good who attempted to Christianize Norway. His earls, however, strongly opposed him. In the end, they convinced him to, 'make an end of the Christian faith in Norway... and compel the king to a blood-offering.' This was done, and when the king dies around 960 AD, he was given a funeral in a howe at Sein in North Hordaland in accordance with the Viking way. His personal skald, Eyvind Scaldaspiller, composed an eulogy called the Hakonarmal which described how King Hakon, 'upheld the temples, and was received with gladness in Valhalla by the high gods.' (Jones and Pennick, 1995: 134-135)

Hakon the Good was first a Christian, and tried to establish that religion in Norway. It is only after he finds that the people are unwilling to accept Christianity that he reverts to the Heathen Viking religion. This appears to be a political move. Hakon was the son of Harald Fairhair, but he was also the foster-son of King Athelstan of England. England at this time was emerged in the Christian religion, and so Hakon's upbringing had been within the Christian religion. (Jones, 1984: 199)

In Denmark, the case was slightly different. Harald Bluetooth challenged a missionary named Poppo to a trial by ordeal after he said that there was only one God - the Father, his son Jesus, and the Holy Ghost, and that the Aesir was actually just demons. At this time, the Danes acknowledged the Christian god, but believed that the Aesir were more powerful. An account is given by Widukind the Saxon, and it records that around 960 AD, the priest Poppo performed a miracle by which he held a piece of hot iron in his hands without being burned. This convinced Harald Bluetooth that the Christian god was greater than those he worshiped, and thus ordered the people to follow the Christian faith. (Jones, 1984: 126)

Adam of Bremen, however, records a different story and says that the reason for Harald Bluetooth's conversion to Christianity was due to, 'an unsuccessful war with the emperor.' This referred to war refers to the conflicts with Otto I and Germany. It is strongly suspected that Poppo was in league with Otto, and that when Harald Bluetooth converted to Christianity, it was a sign of his acknowledgement of Otto's power. Harald was more concerned with extending his kingdom, and the conversion was a ready way of dealing with Otto so that he would have fewer excuses for attacking. (Jones, 1984: 126)

By 998 AD, Olaf Tryggvason began burning the pagan temples and forcing each community to convert to Christianity or die. According to the Saga of Olaf Tryggvason, he was not beyond taking hostages to enforce the observance of Christian rituals. Why did Olaf convert to Christianity in the first place? There is not much in the way of documentation for the reasons behind his conversion to Christianity. On legend says that he accepted the Christian religion from a hermit in the Scillies. (Jones, 1984: 132) In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, it is recorded that Olaf was baptized in 994 AD and given 16,000 pounds of silver after an unsuccessful attack on the city of London in England. (Jones, 1984: 132)

Iceland was Christianized around the beginning of the 11th century. The leaders of Iceland came together at an Althing and came to this decision, but the exact reasons for the conversion remain unclear. One account tells us that this occurred when the law-speaker, Thorgeirr, was bribed to support the Christian faith against the Viking pagan religion. Another account by Ari Thorgilsson suggests that the conversion was due to the influence of Olaf Tryggvason who pressured Icelanders who went to visit Norway. (Sawyer, 1982: 141)

Little is said regarding Sweden, and it is thought that Christianity was a very gradual and peaceful process. It was not until sometime between 1000 AD and 1024 AD that Olav Scotkonung finally imposed Christianity as the official religion of Sweden. (Jones and Pennick, 1995: 136) In 1080 AD, however, King Inge the Elder was exiled from Uppsala for refusing to sacrifice at the temple there. It was not until around 1120 AD when King Sigurd the Jerusalem-Traveler declared a crusade against the pagan practices in Smalalnd that we see a complete rejection and persecution of the followers of the Heathen Viking religion in Sweden. (Jones and Pennick, 1995: 137)

The Viking conversion to Christianity was often for reasons of trade and politics. If the Vikings were able to conduct peaceful relations with other countries, they would have a better chance at building bases by which they could trade their goods.

So why attack the Christian churches? The Viking movement was dependant on raiding, trading, colonization, and war. (Jones, 1984: 196) When times were favorable the Vikings would trade, but when the opportunity presented itself the Vikings would also resort to raiding and piracy. (Jones, 1984: 199) The churches were full of the loot that the Vikings desired, and being as it was left relatively unguarded, the Viking had no problem with plundering it. (Jones, 1984: 200)



Resources

Jones, Gwyn. "A History of the Vikings." second ed. (NY: Oxford University Press, 1984.)

Jones, Prudence and Pennick, Nigel. "A History of Pagan Europe." (London and New York: Routledge, 1995)

Sawyer, P. H. "Kings and Vikings." (NY: Routledge, 1987.)

Roesdahl, Else. "The Vikings." (NY: Penguin Books, 1987.)
Comment by Enchantress on February 2, 2009 at 8:20pm
Hail All, I'm new here and wanted to say hello.I have been a Norse solitary witch for many years now and would like to learn more about the other Norse trads.
Comment by Mind Fire on January 20, 2009 at 9:50pm
SNOWMOON/JANUARY


Snowmoon 3, Charming of the Plow: This is the date of an agricultural ritual performed in Northern Europe from ancient times. Grains and cakes were offered for the soil’s fertility, and the Sky Father and Earth Mother were invoked to that end. Meditate upon your dependence on the soil, and crumble upon the earth a piece of bread as you call upon Odin, Frigga and the Land Spirits to heal the Earth and keep it from harm.

Snowmoon 9, Day of Remembrance for Raud the Strong: Raud was a landowner in Norway who was put to death by (St.) Olaf Tryggvason for his loyalty to Asatru by having a snake forced down his throat. Rauds lands were then confiscated in the name of the king and his monks. Raise a horn in honor of Raud and all of his kinsmen who gave their lives, rather then submit to the enforced love of the kristjan empire.

Snowmoon 14, Thorrablot: This holiday began the Old Norse month of Snorri. It is still observed in Iceland with parties and a mid-winter feast. It is of course sacred to Thorr and the ancient Icelandic Winter Spirit of Thorri. On this day we should perform blot to Thorr and invite the mighty Asaman to the feast.

HORNING/FEBRUARY


Horning 2, Barri: This is the day we celebrate the wooing by Ingvi Freyr of the maiden Gerd, a symbolic marriage of the Vanir God of Fertility with the Mother Earth. It is a festival of fertility, the planted seed and the plowed furrow. For those of you who garden, this is the time to plant seeds indoors, to later be transplanted in the summer garden.

Horning 9, Day of Remembrance for Eyvind Kinnrifi: Olaf tortured him to death by placing a bowl of red-hot embers on his stomach until his body burst open. Eyvind’s crime was a steadfast loyalty to the Old Gods. A good day to reflect on kristjan kindness.

Horning 14, Feast of Vali: This feast originally celebrated the death of Hothr at the hands of Vali. This late winter festival relates to the triumphant return of the light of the sun over the dark days of winter. Today it is traditional celebration of the family. A time for the customary exchange of cards and gifts with loved ones. It is also a time for the renewal of marriage vows and an occasion for marriages.

LENTING/MARCH


Lenting 9, Day of Remembrance for Oliver the Martyr: He was an adherent of Asatru who persisted in organizing underground sacrifices to the Gods and Goddesses despite decrees by St Olaf the Lawbreaker forbidding such activities. Betrayed by an informer, he was killed by Olaf’s men while preparing for the Spring sacrifice in the village of Maerin Norway. Many other men whose names are lost to us were also killed, mutilated, or exiled for taking part in such sacrifices.

Lenting 15, High Feast of Ostara: This is the Spring Equinox. The end of Winter and the beginning of the season of rebirth. Today we honor Frigga, Freya and Nerthus with blot and feast. Pour a libation of mead onto the Earth; celebrate the rebirth of nature, Asatru, and the new hopes of our Folk.

Lenting 28, Ragnar Lodbrok Day: Ragnar was one of the legends most famous Vikings. On this day in Runic Year 1145 he raided Paris. It just happened to be Easter Sunday. Today toast Ragnar and read from his Saga.

OSTARA/APRIL


Ostara 9, Day of Remembrance for Jarl Hakon of Norway: As ruler of the western part of the realm, Hakon restored the worship of the Old Gods and cast out the alien religion. In the process, the common folk regained political liberties which were erased under the kristjan yoke, and the flame of our Troth burned brighter in an era of gathering gloom. It may be that Hakon’s defense of our ancestral ways helped encourage the survival of our traditions in Iceland, where they eventually became the seeds of modern day Asatru. On this day reflect on how the actions of the individual can impact world events and the future of Odinn’s Nation.

Ostara 15, Sigrblot/Sumarsdag: Today we celebrate the first day of Summer in the Old Icelandic calendar. In Iceland it had strong agricultural overtones, but elsewhere in the Nordic world, it was a time to sacrifice to Odinn for victory in the summer voyages and battles.

Ostara 22, Yggdrasil Day: On this day we realize the great significance that the World Tree plays in our culture, heritage, and native spirituality. It is from the World Tree that we came, and it shelters and nurtures the Asatru today, and will offer refuge to the Folk come Ragnarok. Trees are the lungs as well as the soul of Midgard. Plant a tree today, nurture it, and protect it. In this act the Folk must abide.

Ostara 30, Walburg: this is better known as Walpurgisnacht or May Eve. Walberg is a goddess of our folk combining some of the traits of Her better-known peers. Reflect on this day on Freya, Hel, and Frigga as the repository of the glorious dead, and you will have an idea of Wulburg’s nature. On this day pour a horn of mead upon the earth in memory of our heroes.

MERRYMOON/MAY


Merrymoon 1, May Day: The first of May is a time of great celebration all across Europe, as the fields get greener and the flowers decorate the landscape with colorful confusion. Freya turns her kindly face to us after the night of Walburg. Celebrate the birth of Spring and the gifts of Freya on this day.

Merrymoon 9, Day of Remembrance for Guthroth: One of the upland minor kings. Guthroth had to the audacity to make a speech opposing the policies of Olaf Tryggvason, who at the time was busy killing people who did not want to become kristjans. For exercising his Gods given rights to worship his tribal Gods, Guthroth was captured and his tongue was cut out. Use your tongue for the Gods today! Sing their praises and recite some heroic poetry, tell someone of the Gods glory, and call a kinsman to keep in touch.

Merrymoon 20, Frigga Blot: Today we rejoice in the warmth and splendor of Spring. A traditional time for a Kindred campout, perform blot to honor the AllMother and thank Her for the health and vitality of the Family, Kindred and Tribe.

MIDYEAR/JUNE


Midyear 8, Lindisfarne Day: On this day in the year 1043 Runic Era (793 CE) three Viking ships raided the Isle of Lindisfarne, officially opening what is the Viking Age. Toast these brave warriors who began the noble resistance of the alien invasion of the Northlands and sought rightful revenge for the slaughter of the Saxons by Charlamange.

Midyear 9, Day of Remembrance for Sigurd the Volsung: He is the model Germanic hero. His wooing of the Valkyrie Brynhild, the winning of the treasure of the Nibelungs, and the constant theme of Odinic initiation that weaves itself throughout his story are priceless parts of our Asatru heritage, that provide endless material for contemplation and inspiration for action.

Midyear 19, Asatru Alliance Founding Day: On this date 2238 R.E. seven Kindreds of the former Asatru Free Assembly joined together by ratifying a set of By Laws to preserve and continue to promote the cause of the AFA and Asatru in Vinland. On this day reflect on just what YOU can do to preserve our Folk Ways.

Midyear 21, Midsummer: This is the longest day and the shortest night of the year: Now Sunna begins its ling decline, sliding into the darkness which will culminate six months from now at Yule. Identifying the sun with the brightness of Baldur, we celebrate in honor of both. Hold blot to Baldur and High Feast. This was the traditional time for holding the AlThing in ancient times.

HAYMOON/JULY


Haymoon 4, Founder’s Day: On this day we honor the unselfish personal sacrifice and unswerving dedication to our Folk exemplified by the founders of modern era Asatru, H. Rud Mills of Australia, Sveinbjorn Beinteinsson and Thorsteinn Guthjonson of Iceland. On this day reflect on just what YOU can do to promote the growth of our ancestral religion and protect our sacred heritage and traditions.

Haymoon 9 - Day of Remembrance for Unn the Deep Minded: Unn was a powerful figure from the Laxdaela Saga who emigrated to Scotland to avoid the hostility of King Harald Finehair. She established dynasties in the Orkney and Faroe Islands by carefully marrying off her grand daughters. As a settler in Iceland she continued to exhibit all those traits which were her hallmark-strong will, a determination to control, dignity, and a noble character. In the last days of her life, she established a mighty line choosing one of her grandsons as her heir. She died during his wedding celebration, presumable accomplishing her goals and worked out her orlog here in Midgard. She received a typical Nordic ship burial, surrounded by her treasure and her reputation for great deeds.

Haymoon 29 - Stikklestad Day: Olaf the Lawbreaker (“St. Olaf”) was killed at the battle of Stikklestad on this date in the year 1280 R.E. Olaf acquired a reputation for killing, maiming, and exiling his fellow Norwegians who would not convert to Christianity, and for carrying an army with him in violation of the law to help him accomplish his oppression. Today honor the Asatru martyrs who died rather then submit to gray slavery. Also honor the warriors who brought justice to the Lawbreaker.

HARVEST/AUGUST


Harvest 9 - Day of Remembrance for Radbod: On this date we honor Radbod a king of Frisia what was an early target kristjan missionaries. Just before his baptism ceremony, he asked the clergy what fate his befallen ancestors who died loyal to Asatru. The missionaries replied that Radbod’s Heathen ancestors were burning in Hell-to which the king replied: “Then I will rather live there with my ancestors than go to heaven with a parcel of beggars.” The baptism was cancelled, the aliens expelled, and Frisia remained free. Drink a horn this day in memory of Radbod.

Harvest 19 - Freyfaxi: Freyfaxi marked the time of the harvest in ancient Iceland. Today the Asatru observe this date as a celebration of their harvest with blot to Freyr and a grand Feast from the gardens and the fields..

SHEDDING/SEPTEMBER


Shedding 9 - Day of Remembrance for Herman of the Cherusci: Few mortals have privileged to serve our Folk as did Herman, a leader of the tribe called the Cherusci. We he defeated Varus’ three Roman Legions in 9 C.E. he blocked our amalgamation into the Mediterranean morass. Herman was very aware of his duties not only as a member of his tribe but also as an Asaman - indeed the two were probably inseparable with him. Shedding is the ideal time to give him praise, because the crucial battle for which he is remembered was fought during this month.

Shedding 23 - Winter Finding: The Fall Equinox; Summer and Winter balance for a moment and the cold, old man wins - for now. Brace yourself for longer nights and the onset, eventually, of the cold and darkness of Winter. Do blot to Odin for inspiration to get through your personal lean times, whenever they may strike. This is the traditional time for Fall Fest and the Second Harvest Feast.

HUNTING/OCTOBER


Hunting 8 - Day of Remembrance for Erik the Red: Praise the stalwart founder of Greenland, and father of Leif, the founder of Vinland. Erik remained loyal to Thor even when his wife left the Gods and refused to sleep with her Heathen husband. Pause in memory of Erik today; drink a toast to his honor. No doubt he gets enough warmth in Har’s Hall to make up for his wife’s coldness.

Hunting 9 - Day of Remembrance for Leif Erikson: this is a day that even the U.S. Government admits who should dedicate to the man who beat Columbus to the shores of Vinland by over 500 years. Don’t let it slide quietly - write your local newspapers and share the word of the Norse colonies with neighbors and friends.

Hunting 14 - Winter Nights/Vetrablot: In the Old Icelandic Calendar, winter begins on the Satyrday between Hunting 11th and 17th. Winter Nights celebrates the bounty of the harvest and honors Freya and the fertility and protective spirits called Disir, that She leads (often the Disir are seen as our female ancestors). Give glory to Freya and pour a libation of ale, milk, or mead into the soil an offering to the Disir and the Earth itself.

FOGMOON/NOVEMBER


Fogmoon 9 - Day of Remembrance for Queen Sigrith of Sweden: When Olaf the Lawbreaker had been king of Norway for three years, he asked Queen Sigrith of Sweden to marry him. She agreed, but when he insisted that she give up her ancestral Gods Sigrith replied, “I do not mean to abandon the faith I have led, and my kinsmen before me. Nor shall I object to your belief in the god you prefer.” As usual Heathen tolerance was met with kristjan imprecations and a blow to the face. The wedding was off - depriving Olaf of political power that could have sped the christianization of Scandinavia. As it were, history tells us that the Heathens held on for over 300 more years in the Northlands. Hail Sigrith, defender of Asatru, and women of stubborn virtue!

Fogmoon 11 - Feast of the Einherjar: The chosen heroes who sit in Odin’s Hall are the Einherjar. Today we honor those dead kin who gave their lives for Family and Folk. If you have friends or family who died in battle, visit their graves today, if that is not possible, drink a libation in their memory.

Fogmoon 23 - Feast of Ullr: The Feast of Ullr is to celebrate the Hunt and to gain personal luck needed for success. Weapons are dedicated on this day to Ullr, God of the Bow. If your hunting arms were blessed by the luck of the God of the Hunt, your family and tribe shared the bounty with a Blot and Feast to Ullr.

YULE/DECEMBER


Yule 9 - Day of Remembrance for Egil Skallagrimsson: Odin was his God, and the blood of berserks and shape-shifters ran in his family. His lust for gold and for fames was insatiable. Yet the same man was passionately moved by the love of his friends and generously opened handed to those who found his favor. The same brain that seethed with war-fury also composed skaldic poetry capable of calming angry kings. Can it be by accident that Egil worshipped Odin, the great solver of paradoxes and riddles? Indeed all Asafolk - but especially those who follow the one-eyed God of battle and magic - can learn much from the life of this amazing man.

Yule 21 - Mother Night: As the night before the Winter Solstice, this is the time when the New Year is born. We honor the beginning of Sunnas return and the breaking of Winter’s spell. This is a time to honor Thor and Freyr, celebrate by Blot, Sumbel, and High Feast. Burn a Yule Log and jump the flames for luck and purification.

Yule 22 - High Feast of Yule - Beginning of Runic Year - Sacred to Thorr and Freyr

Yule 31 - Twelfth Night: This culminates the traditional twelve days of Yule. Each day of which is a month of the preceding year in miniature. Reflect on the past year. Take stock and lay a course for the future. Make New Years resolutions in the old way by swearing your oath on Freyr’s boar or on your Hammer.
Comment by Prizm on January 14, 2009 at 4:27pm
Thanks for the invite. I've always loved Thor. I also like Odin and Loki.
Comment by d'Arqstar on January 12, 2009 at 2:45am
LOL! Okay! You've just bashed me in the head with WAY too much information! LOL! I'm going to have to come back to this to digest all you've offered!
Give me a break here...it's late and my mind's wobbling! LOL!
BB
d'Arqstar
Comment by Mind Fire on January 12, 2009 at 12:57am
In 793 AD three Viking ships raided the monastery at Lindisfarne, off
the Northumberland coast. The raid took place on or near June 8th,
officially opening, what history nowadays refers to as, THE VIKING AGE!
Sick and tired of watching their culture and heritage constantly being
attacked and eroded by Christian carpetbeggars, in Spring 793 three
crews , based in Norway, prepared for striking back at one of the foul
serpent's layers - Lindisfarne.

Not too many monks survived the attack to tell about the proud
Northmen's strike against those whose aim is was, still is, to destroy
our faith and culture. Those defenders of our faith did us proud back
in 793 in Lindisfarne. On the 8th of June toast those brave warriors,
our heroes, who on his day in history made the henchmen of Christ run
like the rabbits!
Comment by Mind Fire on January 12, 2009 at 12:56am
Fé vældr frænda róge; fðesk ulfr í skóge.
Úr er af illu jarne; opt lypr ræinn á hjarne.
Þurs vældr kvinna kvillu; kátr værðr fár af illu.
Óss er flæstra færða för; en skalpr er sværða.
Ræið kveða rossom væsta; Reginn sló sværðet bæzta.
Kaun er barna bölvan; böl görver nán fölvan.
Hagall er kaldastr korna; Kristr skóp hæimenn forna.
Nauðr gerer næppa koste; nöktan kælr í froste.
Ís köllum brú bræiða; blindan þarf at læiða.
Ár er gumna góðe; get ek at örr var Fróðe.
Sól er landa ljóme; lúti ek helgum dóme.
Týr er æinendr ása; opt værðr smiðr blása.
Bjarkan er laufgroenstr líma; Loki bar flærða tíma.
Maðr er moldar auki; mikil er græip á hauki.
Lögr er, fællr ór fjalle foss; en gull ero nosser.
Ýr er vetrgroenstr viða; vænt er, er brennr, at sviða.

Wealth is a source of discord among kinsmen; the wolf lives in the
forest.
Dross comes from bad iron; the reindeer often races over the frozen
snow.
Giant causes anguish to women; misfortune makes few men cheerful.
Estuary is the way of most journeys; but a scabbard is of swords.
Riding is said to be the hardest for horses; Reginn forged the
finest sword.
Ulcer is fatal to children; death makes a corpse pale.
Hail is the coldest of grain; Christ created the world of old.
Need gives scant choice; a naked man is chilled by the frost.
Ice we call the broad bridge; the blind man must be led.
Harvest is a boon to men; I say that Froði was generous.
Sun is the light of the world; I bow to the divine decree.
Týr is a one-handed God; often has the smith to blow.
Birch has the greenest leaves of any shrub; Loki was fortunate in
his deceit.
Man is an augmentation of the dust; great is the talon-span of the
hawk.
Waterfall is a River falling from a mountain; but ornaments are of
gold.
Yew is the greenest of trees in winter; it is wont to crackle when
it burns.
Comment by d'Arqstar on January 12, 2009 at 12:42am
I feel a particular kinship with Heimdall, keeper of the Bifrost bridge...and I'm happy to join this group, though I admit that I STINK at groups in general...I simply FORGET to check in...LOL! But I'll TRY here!
BB
d'Arqstar
 

Members (21)

 
 
 

Latest Activity

© 2019 PaganSpace.net       Powered by

Badges | Privacy Policy  |  Report an Issue  |  Terms of Service