I'm going to be doing a list of Kemetic gods that are worshiped in the Kemetic Orthodox faith. I'll start with A-F today and then post more tomorrow. This list is at the request of one of my members.
Egyptian Gods and Goddess
- "Bender" A predynastic earth-Netjer symbolized in the two
horizons of setting and rising sun; sometimes called "Yesterday and Today" as His symbol is a two-headed lion (two heads at either end of one body). Aker is the protector of Ra
in His overnight travels, and represents the edges of reality and the separation between the reckoning of past and future.Amen
(Amun, Amon, Yimen; GR Zeus-Ammon, Jupiter-Ammon) - "The
Hidden One," Amen is "King of the Netjeru," a major Name of Netjer in Uaset (Thebes) in Upper Kemet. The "Lord to the Limit" who created all things (see Nun
entries for other Creator Names), Amen the lord of the hidden wind eventually syncretised with the royal cult of Ra to emerge as Amen-Ra in the Middle Kingdom. Successions of Theban rulers would propel Amen's fame to national and eventually international status; even Alexander the Great sought Amen's blessing before declaring himself Kemet's ruler. It is possible that the conception of Amen influenced conceptions of the Judaic/Hebraic God (YHVH) as well as those of Greek Zeus and Roman Jupiter; the Romans declared Jupiter and Amen to be the same divinity. Amen is generally depicted as a man wearing a tall golden plumed crown and a red and white pleated skirt; infrequently He is also shown as a
ram with curled-down horns (not to be confused with the ram representing Khnum
), or a ram-headed man. Amenet
(Amaunet) - "The Hidden Female" Consort to Amen
of Khemenu (GR Hermopolis), Amenet represents the hidden feminine side of Netjer; "Great Queen" to Amen's "King of Netjeru." [A less-mentioned feminine form of Ra
, as "Rait," is also mentioned in connection with Amenet.] Amenet was syncretised in later parts of Kemetic history with Mut
. Depiction (if She is depicted at all) is of a woman wearing the Double Crown. Am-mit
(Am-mut) - "Dead-Swallower" Stationed just to the side of the scales in the Hall of Double Truth [see Ma'at
Am-mit's function is to await the postmortem judgment of a soul (envisioned as the deceased's heart being weighed on a scale against the feather of Ma'at) and then, if the soul fails the test, Am-mit snatches up the heart and devours it, causing the soul to cease to exist. As the
ultimate punishment of the wicked, Am-mit is depicted as a hideous composite of the animals ancient Kemetics feared most: crocodile snout and head, feline claws and front, and a hippopotamus body and back legs. Am-mit is also sometimes referred to as "Great of Death," and papyri depict Her patiently watching Yinepu
weighing a man's heart against the feather of Ma'at.
Amset known as Imset (will cover that one when I get to Imset)
Anpu as known as Yinepu (will cover that one when I get to Yinepu)
Anubis as known as YinepuAn(u)ket
(GR Anukis) - "Embracing Lady," consort (or alternately, daughter) to Khnum
Anuket is depicted as a woman wearing an unusual tall crown of ostrich feathers, probably a Nubian headdress. She is, along with Khnum and Satet
, one of the three Names worshipped at Abu (Elephantine) in Upper Kemet, and can be seen on the walls of the temple of Ramses II at modern-day Abu Simbel, as well as in other Nubian temples. As a Name of Netjer associated with Elephantine and Sehel Island, in the area considered by Kemetics to be the source of the Nile, Anuket is a protectress of the mighty river (see Hapi
). In earliest times She is also called a daughter of Ra
(GR Apophis) - (actual translation unclear; the Romans
believed it to mean "He Who Is Spat Out") While outside of the creation of Tem
and thus technically not a part of Netjer, Apep is yet a part of the universe; that part which constantly seeks its dissolution and destruction. Apep is characterized as an "evil serpent"in some texts, but it must be remembered that for Kemetics this is not a personalized evil, such as the Christian or Islamic concepts of "devil." Apep's birthday and New Year's day are marked by the performance of execration rituals to stave off "random acts of Apep" during the subsequent year. It is stated in more than one text that "Apep" is not Its actual Name, but while many other names are given for Apep, none is acknowledged to be the "true" one, possibly to avoid attracting the attention of this extremely powerful Presence.
Apis as known as Wesir-Hapi (Will cover that one when I get to Wesir-Hapi)
Apophis as known as Apep.
Apuat, also known as Wepwawet (will cover that one when I get to it)Aset
(Auset, Ese; GR Isis) - "The Throne," Aset is the power that
makes kings; a feminine Name appearing in texts beginning in Dynasty IV as wife and sister to Wesir
and daughter of Nut
. In earliest times Aset is depicted as the "mistress of magic" (see Heka
) Who learns Ra
's true name and thus the secrets of the universe. In the cult of Wesir Aset is attributed with having prepared Him for burial and conceiving a son upon His dead body, which She magically reanimates long enough to complete (in Kemetic texts, Wesir's death is attributed to drowning; the dismemberment myth given by Plutarch does not appear until millennia later and may not even be Kemetic in origin. See Wesir.). In later periods and particularly after the New Kingdom, Aset was syncretized with a number of other Names, Hethert
in particular, and took on "mother goddess" characteristics. During this period, Aset's importance as mother of Heru-sa-Aset
("Horus, son of Isis", a Name intimately connected with kingship and therefore within Aset's purview as kingmaker) became paramount, in ways strongly suggestive of the Christian cult of the Virgin Mary. The Romans declared all feminine Names to be forms of Aset, crowning Her "Goddess of Ten Thousand Names," though Kemetic mythology does not exhibit this specific archetype. Aten
(Aton, Yiten) - "Sun's Disk" Aten is the physically visible
sun, the yellow sphere in earth's sky that can fructify or scorch. The Aten-disk is venerated as a form of Shu
, or Heru
from the late Middle Kingdom onward and was not, as some have erroneously stated, "invented" by New Kingdom pharaoh Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten. However, beginning with Akhenaten's father, Amenhotep III, Aten enjoyed a higher level of worship, and during Akhenaten's reign, for reasons not entirely clear in the historic record, Akhenaten declared all other Names invalid and Their priests useless, and ordered Kemet to worship him as the "Sole One of Aten," who would then take the people's prayers to His Father (he did not order them to worship Aten; the texts state that only Akhenaten is qualified to do this as the Disk's intermediary). Akhenaten's religious reforms, which did not represent monotheism as has been often suggested (Akhenaten offers Ma'at
in friezes, and some of his hymns refer to "Ra-Heru-akhety
in His Name of Shu Who is in Aten," indicating Akhenaten's "destruction" of other Names was selective), did not long outlast him; a backlash against the Atenist movement by the priesthood of Amen-Ra
after Akhenaten's death resulted in the loss of much of this Name's information.
Atum, also known as Tem (will cover that one when I get to him).
Ausar, also known as Wesir (will cover that one when I get to it).
(Ubasti; G/R Bastet, Bubastis) - "Devouring Lady" (from bas,
to devour, with feminine ending); One of the earliest-documented Names with an appearance in Dynasty II, Bast is first and foremost a
protectress; specifically of the royal house and the Two Lands. During Dynasty IV, She was a patron-Name of Lower Kemet, paired with Hethert
as a patron-Name of Upper Kemet, as Wadjet
are often depicted in later times; the Valley Temple of the Pyramid of Khafra at modern-day Giza next to the Sphinx had a "Portal of Bast" as well as statues of Bast in the company of the king. Over time, Bast's image metamorphosed to become more similar to that of Hethert; eventually, into the Greek period, She would be equated with the virgin huntress Artemis and considered the protectress of children and pregnant mothers, musicians and a goddess of all sorts of excess, especially sexual excess. However, Bast's original visage did not include the "cat as sex symbol" archetype. (Incidentally, it is also from the Greeks that the erroneous belief in Bast as a daughter of Aset
derives; Bast as Artemis had to have a twin brother, Apollo (equated with Heru-sa-Aset by the Greeks).) A play on words in Bast's name resulted in Her being equated in Greco-Roman times with the "soul of Isis" (ba-Aset), probably in keeping with Aset's gradual syncretism into the Roman Isis of Ten Thousand Names. Bat
- "She Who hoes"; a Predynastic Name of Netjer associated with cows, the sky and fertility; later assimilated into Hethert
Bat's front-facing, cow-eared visage would become synonymous with the ritual rattle used in invocation and purification rituals known as the sistrum.Bes
- (Meaning unknown, but may be derivative from the same root as the Netjer-name of Bast
A Name of Netjer with unknown but probably Sub-Saharan origin, Bes is unusually depicted as a man of dwarf stature, facing forward (as opposed to the nearly universal canonical profile), wearing the mask and tail of a lion and carrying a large knife. Bes is the Name associated most strongly with protection of the household and specifically its children and pregnant women; he was also seen depiction as a Pygmy-like being, as Pygmies were known to serve a court-jester function in the Old Kingdom) as the patron of laughter, dancing, happiness and fertility. Bes's masked face with lolling tongue can be seen on amulets and pieces of furniture throughout Kemetic history as well as funerary stelae of the Late Period.
Buto, also known as Wadjet (I'll get to that one when we cover that).
There are no C's in the Kemetic Pantheon.
(Tehuti; G/R Thoth) - "Leader (derivative form)"
Ibis-headed Lord of Time, Writing and Wisdom, Djehuty is said to have invented the hieroglyphic script and negotiated five extra days from the moon in order to perfect the 365-day year. As a result of these mythological connections, Djehuty is the patron of writers, teachers, accountants and all persons involved in the dissemination of knowledge, writing and/or calculation. His consorts are alternately Ma'at
, Netjeret of Truth and Order; or Seshat
, patroness of recordkeeping, libraries and the foundation of buildings. Djehuty is the nominal head of the Ogdoad (group of eight Names of Netjer) honored at the city of Khemenu (Hermopolis of the Greeks), overseeing four pairs of natural syzygies: Eternity (Heh/Hehet), Darkness (Kek/Keket), Water/Potentiality (Nun
/Nunet) and Wind/Hiddenness (Amen
). Along with the ibis, Djehuty is associated with baboons of the genus Cynocephalis, which the ancients observed raising their hands and "singing" to the rising sun; He stands at the side of the scales in the Hall of Two Truths to record the verdict which Yinepu
delivers after weighing the deceased's heart against the feather of Ma'at.Duamutef
(Tuamutef) - "Praising his mother" One of the "Four Sons of Heru
" depicted in funerary literature as protecting the throne of Wesir
in the Underworld, Duamutef is depicted as a jackal-headed mummified human on funerary furniture and especially the "canopic" jars which held the organs of the deceased (Duamutef's jar held the stomach). Later Hermetic philosophers would equate Duamutef with the element of earth because of his association with the funerary protectress Nit
and the direction of north.
Edjo, also known as Wadjet (I'll cover that when we get there).
Ennead, also known as Pesedjet (I"ll cover that when we get there).
Four Sons of Heru (Horus) - See Duamutef, Hapy, Imset, Qebshenef
Note: I'll post more tomorrow.